Mardyks calls it a "hybrid fixed-tropical, galactic zodiac". In astrological practice, Mardyks uses this galactic zodiac combined with the tropical zodiac along with the stars that compose the constellations. Mardyks' calculation is partially based on the galactic coordinate system that was defined by the International Astronomical Union in This ayanamsha differs from the Skydram ayanamsha by only 19 arc seconds.
The last two ayanamshas are based on a slightly outdated position of the galactic pole that was determined in According to more recent observations and calculations from the year , the galactic node with the ecliptic shifts by 3'11", and the "Galactic Alignment" is preponed to Mardyks still gives preference to the older galactic pole and plane, which are still used in astronomy as the standard galactic coordinate system. AA, Oct. This ayanamsha was introduced by the American astrologer Ernst Wilhelm in He used a calculation of the galactic node by D.
Koch from the year , which had a small error of 2 arc seconds. The current implementation of this ayanamsha is based on a new position of the Galactic pole found by Chinese astronomers in This ayanamsha was proposed by the American astrologer Robert DeLuce It is fixed at the birth of Jesus, theoretically at 1 January 1 AD.
DeLuce believes that this ayanamsha was also used in ancient India. He draws this conclusion from the fact that the important ancient Indian astrologer Varahamihira, who assumed the solstices on the ingresses of the Sun into sidereal Cancer and Capricorn, allegedly lived in the 1st century BC. This dating of Varahamihira has recently become popular under the influence of Hindu nationalist ideology Hindutva. However, historically, it cannot be maintained. Varahamihira lived and wrote in the 6th century AD. This ayanamsha is based on the assumption that the Age of Aquarius will begin in the year This assumption is maintained by a theosophical society called Ageless Wisdom , and bases itself on a channelled message given in by a certain spiritual master called Djwhal Khul.
The ancient Indian astronomer Aryabhata states that from the beginning of the Kaliyuga Kali Age in BCE until the spring equinox CE Aryabhata's own 23rd year of life exactly years have passed. In addition, he assumes the spring equinox at the initial point of Aries. From this information, two possible ayanamshas can be derived.
Either the zero point of the zodiac is assumed at the position of the equinoctial point on the spring equinox CE, or otherwise at the position of the mean Sun exactly sidereal years after the beginning of the Kaliyuga. More information on these ayanamshas is found in the General Documentation of the Swiss Ephemeris. These ayanamshas are calculated using the same methods as the two Aryabhata ayanamshas above, however using the year length of the Suryasiddhanta.
According to Govindasvamin n. This tradition probably goes back to an erroneous interpretation of Aryabhata's above-mentioned statement that he was 23 years old when had elapsed after the beginning of the Kaliyuga.
These ayanamshas are not used in astrology. In fact, they are not ayanamshas at all, but astronomical sidereal coordinate systems, where the tropical ecliptic of the beginning of the year , , or is defined as a sidereal reference frame. Ayanamshas are usually defined using the positions of certain fixed stars. The following fixed stars played an important role in the history of the zodiac:. Unfortunately, nobody can tell why any of these stars should be so important that it could be used as an anchor point for the zodiac.
In addition, all these solutions are unattractive in that the fixed stars actually are not fixed forever, but have a small proper motion which over a long period of time such as several millennia, can result in a considerable change in position. The appearance of the sky changes over long periods of time. In ' years, the constellation will look very different from now, and the nakshatras lunar mansions will get confused.
For this reason, a zodiac defined by positions of stars is unfortunately not able to provide an everlasting reference frame. Constellations of the zodiac around the year ' BC. If one were to travel back to that time, one could not easily recognise any of the constellations except Orion. Incidentally, this phenomenon not only challenges current definitions of ayanamsha, which anchor the zodiac at some fixed star, but also obviously proves that the zodiacal constellations either have no reality and are mere imagination or otherwise that they are a transient and perishable thing.
In addition, it is obvious that the astrological zodiac of 12 equal signs with all its wonderful internal logic and symmetry, if it is real at all and an everlasting archetype of the cycles of life, cannot derive its effectiveness from a random distribution of unrelated fixed stars, but must be based on something more stable and more fundamental. For such or also other reasons, some astrologers Raymond Mardyks, Ernst Wilhelm, Rafael Gil Brand, Nick Anthony Fiorenza have tried to redefine the sidereal zodiac using either the galactic centre or the node of the galactic equator with the ecliptic.
It is obvious that this kind of solution, which would not depend on the position of a single star anymore, could provide a philosophically meaningful and very stable definition of the zodiac. Fixed stars would be allowed to change their positions over very long periods of time, but the zodiac could still be considered fixed and "sidereal". Disregarding historical considerations for a moment, it would be philosophically convincing to define the sidereal zodiac relative to the galactic centre, around which our Sun and all visible stars circle.
Assuming the galactic centre here seems to make sense.
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Thus this ayanamsha is very close to the ayanamshas that are fixed at the star Revati. Another ayanamsha that is fixed at the galactic centre was proposed by the German-Spanish astrologer Rafael Gil Brand. To sum up, it seems that even if one agrees that the galactic centre should play an important role in the definition of the sidereal zodiac, nevertheless several different solutions remain possible. Since the Sun moves about the galactic centre, the galactic centre makes a small apparent motion, too, comparable to the fixed stars.
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If one wanted a really fixed reference point, then one would have to fix the zodiac at the so-called International Celestial Reference System ICRS or the extragalactic radiation sources at which it is anchored. From a historical point of view, however, it must be noted that the galactic centre was discovered only in modern times and therefore certainly did not play any role, when the sidereal zodiac was first defined. However, it is quite possible that the galactic node, i.
This intersection point, which is located only a few degrees from the galactic centre, could again be assumed at the beginning of Sagittarius or the nakshatra Mula. This solution or actually a variation on it was apparently first proposed in by the American astrologer Raymond Mardyks. A bit unaesthetic remains the fact that its beginning is not defined as sidereal Aries, but sidereal Sagittarius. Incidentally, this solution could solve the problem of the Age of Aquarius, whose beginning is mostly assumed in our time, whereas with all other approaches, it would only occur in several centuries.
The galactic centre GC is located a few degrees from this point south of the ecliptic. If one prefers a solution closer to traditional ayanamshas, one could assume the galactic node in the middle of the nakshatra Mula. Then the Milky way passes the middle of the "root" nakshatra Mula, which is quite aesthetic. With this solution the zero point of the zodiac would be near the zero point of the Lahiri zodiac.
Also relevant may be the question of whether this reference system is really fixed. In reality, it is subject to small fluctuations, too. Since it is based on the node of the galactic equator with the ecliptic i. These fluctuations are caused by the gravitational influence of the planets so-called planetary precession. Consequently, the galactic node changes its position in the course of millennia by several arc minutes, however oscillates around some a mean position.
Nevertheless, it is certainly a lot more convincing as a point of reference for the sidereal zodiac than some random fixed star. Unfortunately, there are some problems with the definition of the galactic equator, too. It is defined in such a way that both the Sun and the galactic centre are in its plane and that it also approximates the mean plane of the Milky Way.
The galactic coordinate system, which was defined by the International Astronomical Union in the year , only very roughly fulfils this definition. Today, the position of the galactic centre is known with much higher accuracy than it was in It has been found that it does not lie exactly in the plane of the galactic coordinate system, as it should, but about 4 arc minutes south of it.
This correction is based on a paper by Chinese scientists from the year However, another small correction may be required in the future. Another point we should be aware of is the fact that alternative definitions of the galactic plane could be thought of. The plane of the galactic equator described above passes through the Sun and the galactic centre and approximates the plane of the Milky Way as closely as possible. However, it is not identical to the true plane of the Milky way. Since the current position of the Sun is not exactly in the plane of our galaxy, but a bit above it, therefore we actually look a bit down on the plane of the Milky Way.
Consequently, the galactic centre has an apparent position of 8. The node of this plane with the ecliptic is about 9. The galactic equator or the true plane of the galaxy? The true plane of the galaxy is certainly more fundamental and more stable than the galactic equator.
The galactic equator is only an approximation of it. Since the Sun is located exactly in its plane by definition, however in its orbit around the galactic centre moves above and below the fundamental galactic plane, it follows that the galactic equator will change its inclination against the galactic plane over time, i.
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In addition, since the Sun also moves around the galactic centre and the galactic centre makes a corresponding apparent motion, too, the nodal axis of the tilting movement will also wander around the galactic centre in the course of more than million years. These motions are extremely small and will become significant only over millions of years, however it is a fact that the galactic equator is not a fixed frame of reference. By contrast, the true galactic plane is extremely stable. As has been stated, the difference between the two planes is small, and their nodes with the ecliptic are only about 9.
The galactic equator passed the ecliptic at the winter solstitial point in , however the true galactic plane did so only in the year or It is likely that some astrologers would prefer an ayanamsha based on the true galactic plane. At the moment, however, we have not implemented such ayanamshas yet. While a rough calculation could be done already, astronomical data available today are still not accurate enough in order to calculate such ayanamshas with high precision.
Another possible galactic plane of reference is given by the motion of the Sun around the galactic centre, i. This plane has a completely different orientation and is subject to enormous fluctuations over a period of millions of years. These fluctuations are caused by the fact that the Sun during its revolution around the galactic centre several time crosses the galactic plane and moves up and down, thereby changing its direction of motion.
Currently this plane "orbital plane" of the Sun cuts the ecliptic in tropical Leo and Aquarius or in sidereal Cancer and Capricorn. In October , Jonathan Dunn pointed out to me the possibility to define the initial point of the zodiac by the Andromeda Galaxy. The Andromeda Galaxy is the largest galaxy close to our Milky Way. It moves at more than km per second towards our galaxy and will unite with it in about 4.
In this sense, it is a kind of partner galaxy of the Milky Way and will play a major role in its destiny.